A study of basic pharmacology beginning with general principles of pharmacology and progressing to specific workings as well as the intended and side effects (specific and systemic) of medications used to treat pathologies of the autonomic nervous system, antihypertensives, cardiovascular, antiulcer, insulin and other hypoglycemics, corticosteroids, antiasthmatics, analgesics, skeletal muscle, antiarthritics and psychiatric medications. No prerequisite required.
Detailed reviews of the components of blood, immunity and the immune system, homeostasis and blood clotting, continuing with specifics on blood groupings and transfusions. A detailed study of cardiac muscle, action potentials, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume, electrical conductive system of the heart, electrocardiograms and heart pathologies. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1521.
A detailed study of the three types of muscle tissue (skeletal, cardiac, smooth), their macro and micro anatomy, functions and characteristics, individually and comparatively. Special focus on skeletal muscle contraction, sliding filament theory, metabolism, muscle fatigue, tetany, tension, spasm, cramping, load/velocity and stretch/strength relationships, effects of exercise, golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1433.
A detailed study of the endocrine system, anatomy, sequela of hormones produced, intended effects, hypo and hyper production pathologies. Specific areas covered: hormones, hypothalamus, posterior and anterior pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries and testes, pineal, thymus, stress response and general adaptation system. Prerequisite: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1511.
A review of the anatomy of the kidney and urinary tract, continuing with specific functioning of the kidney including blood flow, urine formation, glomerulo filtration, regulation of filtration rates and reabsorption, role in maintaining homeostasis, role of hormones and common urinary tract pathologies. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1511.
A review of the anatomy of the respiratory system, continuing with detailed functioning of the lungs including breathing (muscles and thoracic pressure), lung volumes and capacities, gas exchange, transport of gases, respiratory control mechanisms, acid/base balance and common respiratory pathologies. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1511, Anatomy 1521.
A study of the gross and micro anatomy of the entire gastrointestinal tract and its mechanisms, followed by the general histology. Specific detail is also given for anatomy and function of the associated organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Other areas covered include deglutition, gastric secretions, motility, digestion, absorption, elimination as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1511.
A study of the physiological workings of the nervous system, beginning with general concepts of neurophysiology and continuing with resting membrane potentials, action potentials, refractory periods, saltatory conduction, electrical and chemical synapses, excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, synaptic events, regeneration of nerve fibers, and neural integration. Prerequisites: Biology 1033, Anatomy 1511.